Sign in

It is well known that zkRollup has the highest security level amongst all Rollup solutions; however, currently zkRollup does not support programmability, not to mention composability. zkEVM utilizes zk-SNARK technology to execute EVM in order to prove. zkRollup supports zkEVM, and it is compatible EVM smart contract at L2. As…


Dark Forest is a MMO (massively multiplayer online) game. I am particularly interested in this game utilizing zero knowledge proof technology. Nowadays, more and more applications of zero knowledge proof technology have been developed, such as privacy, cross-chain, zk Rollup, games, etc. This article will cover the basic strategy of…


PLONK algorithm requires trusted setup once, however, the complexity of the proof complexity is higher than Groth16 algorithm. PLONK algorithm has its advantage on trusted setup, since any of the circuit can share the initial configuration. Since any circuit can share SRS, PLONK algorithm itself has the proof validation logic…


Lately I have checked out some cross-chain projects. Thought it would be nice to summarize technologies related to cross-chain. “Cross-chain” means that semantics on one chain can be correctly executed on other chains. Currently, cross-chain projects are mainly impelemtned for asset on one chain to be projected to another chain…


Layer2 is a huge topic. Decentralization, safety concerns, and asset status confirmation time are the main dicussions about Layer2. Here is a summary of my understanding and a few thoughts of Layer2 during my free time.

Layer2 Interaction model

Layer2, compared to Layer1, based on Layer1 it provides more functions and better user…


Arbitrum is one of the of solutions Layer2 Rollup. Similar to Optimism, the state finality takes “challenge” mechanism to provide ensurance. The challenge mechnism of Optimism is to simulate one trasaction completely in Layer1, then verify the correctness of the post-exectution state. This method requires simulation environment of EVM on…


Understanding uniswap V3 technical white paper helps understand the source code. Uniswap V3 logic is a little bit complicated, but the implementation is rather clear. I strongly recommend you to understand the sniswap V3 technical white paper before looking at the source code:

https://starli.medium.com/uniswap-deep-dive-into-v3-technical-white-paper-2fe2b5c90d2

Links to uniswap V3 Smart Contract…


zkSync uses PLONK zero knowledge proof algorithm to generate proof. The logic of proof is implemented through enhanced bellman library. matter-labs has the open source code at plonk-release branch. Though zkSync uses PLONK zero knowledge proof algorithm, the construction of circuit still takes form of R1CS. In order to generate…


PlonK is the acronym forPermutations over Lagrange-bases for Oecumenical Noninteractive arguments of Knowledge. PlonK ia an implementation of the Universal Zero-Knowledge proof algorithm. Universal means that the trusted setup only needs to be initiated once. …


uniswap V3 has drown wide attention upon its publication to the world. Compared to V2, V3 has more complexity in logic and code. V3 core’s liquidity(Centralized liquidity) is driven by its handicap range. It deals with the fund utilization rate issue that occurs when LP provides liuquidity. “What is fund…

Star LI

Founder of Trapdoor Tech (Blockchain & zk-SNARK solution provider) — www.trapdoortech.com

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store